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Showing posts from November, 2011

Barbary Macaque

Macaca sylvanus Meet the only primate (besides humans of course!) to live on the European continent. Barbary Macaques, which  also live in Morocco and Algeria, exist in a handful of colonies within the British territory of Gibraltar, which is located on the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. Though they are sometimes referred to as Barbary Apes or Rock Apes, that name is not technically correct. Though they do not have tails, they are actually true Old World Monkeys. They live in colonies that can number over 100 members, and they are relatively unique among Macaques in that the males actually help care for the young. This is due to the fact that the females will mate with more than one male, so the paternity of all offspring is uncertain. Legend has it that British rule will continue on the tiny, 2.5 square mile stretch of land as long as the Macaques are around. (Sound familiar to a certain tale about the Tower Ravens , huh?) When the Monkeys began to dwindle in populati

Burmese Peacock

Polyplectron bicalcaratum Burmese Peacocks are also referred to as Grey Peacock-Pheasants, which is probably a more apt name, as they are not actually Peacocks... though they do belong to the same family. At any rate, they share some physical resemblances to Peacocks- most notably the eyes on their tail feathers. Burmese Peacocks are the national birds of Myanmar, which was called Burma until 1989, though some still refer to it as such. The birds live in several other Southeast Asian countries as well, and are divided into four subspecies. The species as a whole is listed as being of Least Concern , because they have a large range and population size. It unfortunately appears that they may be declining in number, but it is a slow descent that does not yet meet the vulnerability thresholds. The birds are listed under CITES Appendix II, because they can be kept in captivity and grabbing individuals from the wild could become problematic for the species. IUCN Status :  Least Co

Mute Swan

Cygnus olor Mute Swans are some of the most common Swans in the entire world. They are found across Europe and Asia, and have even been imported to North America , where they have also become widespread in many areas near larger bodies of water. The common name comes from the fact that Mute Swans aren't especially vocal . They can make hisses, whistles, and snorts, but they aren't very loud due to the orientation of their trachea. Most of their communication comes from visual displays. Mute Swans are monogamous , and tend to have the same mate for life, but this is not always the case. Swan divorce has been observed, and widowed Swans will choose new mates. In the cases of "remarriage" the younger Swan will almost always join the territory of the older Swan. Both mates help to incubate the eggs and defend the nest. Because they are so widespread Mute Swans aren't in any real population danger. They do, however, pose slight threats to other species, espec

Edible-Nest Swiftlet

Aerodramus fuciphagus Edible-Nest Swiftlet... what a weird name for a bird! But have you ever heard of Bird's Nest Soup? This is the bird whose nest is in that soup . Makes more sense now, right? When you normally think of a birds nest, you think of sticks, and leaves, and rocks, and little plastic things. Not things that are generally found in soup. But the Edible-Nest Swiftlet uses none of those materials. Their nest is a collection of built up, hardened saliva ! ...OK, so saliva is not the most appetizing thing either. But the nests are collected and soaked and steamed to make soup, which is considered by some to be an aphrodisiac. The soup is described as having a gelatinous texture. Unfortunately, the harvesting of these nests has damaged some local populations over the last few hundred years. Some are even going regionally extinct. Conservation programs have been put into place in some countries to protect the wild birds, and a practice known as " House Nesting

Three-Striped Damsel

Dascyllus aruanus The Three-Stripe Damsel is a small, boldly patterned fish found near coral reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They live at depths of up to 12m. They measure only around 4in in length, and are named for the three black vertical stripes that run down their bodies. Three-Stripe Damsels make great starter fish in captivity. They are disease resistant , adapt to many different food types, and can be kept in groups. It is important to note, however, that each Damsel should have its own rock or area in which to live, because this simulates the habitat that the wild fish have within coral reefs , and it prevents the adult Damsels from being too territorial or aggressive with one another. IUCN Status :  Not Listed Location :   Pacific and Indian Oceans Size :  Length up to 4in (10cm) Classification :  Phylum : Chordata -- Class : Actinopterygii -- Order : Perciformes Family : Pomacentrida


Albertosaurus Albertosaurus is a Cretaceous carnivore named for the Canadian province of its discovery It was first discovered by J.B. Tyrell  in 1884, and was officially identified as a species in 1905. As a member of the family Tyrannosauridae, Albertosaurus is a relative to the T. Rex. They share many physical similarities, including a large skull, small forelimbs, and powerful hind legs. Albertosaurus, however, was smaller than the T. Rex, and predated it by a few million years. They were probably very fast runners , and could recovered from stumbles and falls easier than their larger relatives. Skull Cast Albertosaurus had quite a few teeth. 14-16 on the lower jaw, and 17-19 on the upper. Though they had only one row of teeth at a given time, there was always a replacement growing in the jaw in case a tooth fell out! We actually know quite a bit about the Albertosaurus, as there have been fossils of over 30 different individuals discovered. Not only are there numero

Ocellated Turkey

Meleagris ocellata Well, last year I covered the Wild Turkey, so it seems fitting that for this Thanksgiving I write about its lesser known relative, the Ocellated Turkey. Did you know that they are the only two Turkey species in the entire world? I wouldn't blame you if you had never heard of this bird until today. They have a very limited range and are not well studied. Ocellated Turkeys are found exclusively on the Yucatan peninsula, in a range that covers only about 50,000 square miles . They live in tropical forests, but enter more open habitats during the breeding season. If placed side by side, it would be easy to tell the Ocellated Turkey apart from the Wild Turkey. They are smaller in size, but they are much more fanciful in color, sporting bronze and iridescent green plumage (though the males are of course more vibrant than the females). The diet of the Ocellated Turkey is quite varied. They are omnivores that feed on seeds, berries, nuts, and insects. The speci

Wolf Eel

Anarrhichthys ocellatus Despite the name, Wolf Eels aren't actually related to the true Eels- they are members of the bony fish order! They are a monotypic species in their genus, and belong to the Wolffish family along with four other species. If you take a look at the Wolf Eel's head, you'll notice it actually looks pretty fish like. But when its body is supposed to stop.... it just keeps going. They can grow several feet long and weigh nearly 40lbs! Wolf Eels live in relatively shallow water, typically no deeper than around 700ft (213m). They live in rocky crevasses , leaving only their heads exposed. They hunt mollusks, shellfish, and crustaceans by waiting for the critters to wander by. Interestingly, Wolf Eels are monogamous , and pairs will share a den and protect their eggs together. IUCN Status :  Not Listed Location :   Pacific Ocean Size :  Length up to 80in (2m), Weight up to 40lbs (18kg)

Demoiselle Crane

Anthropoides virgo Demoiselle Cranes are the smallest members of the Crane family, and are also one of the most common species. They live in Central Asia in grassland and steppe habitats. The common name for the species actually was bestowed upon the birds by Marie Antoinette .  When some of the Cranes were brought to her in France, she named them for their delicate and ladylike appearance. "Demoiselle" translates to "Damsel." Demoiselle Cranes are migratory birds, and live in very large flocks when they travel. Once they have reached their breeding grounds, however, they pair off (they mate for life) and become territorial. The mated Cranes  strengthen their bonds with one another through song, exhibiting a behavior called unison calling. They are also very enthusiastic dancers, and engage in ballets with their mates. They also dance to attract mates, to relieve tension, and to develop motor skills when young. The Cranes also communicate through a variety

Barbary Lion

Wild Barbary Lion, photographed in 1893 Barbary Lions are members of a Lion subspecies that once lived throughout northern Africa. They are now considered to be extinct in the wild. There may be some captive specimens left, but there is some controversy as to whether many are true members of the subspecies. The history of the Barbary Lion is a storied one. They were once fought off by the ancient Egyptians, and they were captured by the Romans for use in gladiatorial events. They also lived in the English Royal Menagerie (and later in the Tower of London ) as far back as the 12th and 13th centuries. Morroccan Kings and Sultans  kept Barbary Lions, and there are some captive individuals today who are said to be descendants of the " Royal Lions ." Barbary Lions were huge . Adult males could weigh as much as 600lbs, making them the largest of the subspecies. They also had shaggy manes that extended well beyond their necks, reaching to their backs and even covering their

Tithonus Birdwing

Male Tithonus Birdwing The male Tithonus Birdwing is a stunning green butterfly found in Southeast Asia and Australia. Females are also pretty good looking, with a bold pattern of black, white, and yellow. They also happen to be larger than their male counterparts, which is already pretty big. Tithonus Birdwings can have wingspans that measure almost 8 inches! As adults , they breed in the forest valleys, but they tend to do much of their actual courtship and mating higher up on the ridges. Female Tithonus Birdwings are prized by collectors for their size and beauty. Many of the Birdwing Butterflies are threatened or endangered. The data behind the Tithonus Birdwing is deficient according to the IUCN, but they are protected under CITES Appendix II . IUCN Status :  Data Deficient Location :   Australia and South East Asia Size :  Wingspan up to 7.5in (19cm) Classification :  Phylum : Arthropoda -- Cla

Guadalupe Fur Seal

Arctocephalus townsendi We almost lost the Guadalupe Fur Seal. They were hunted commercially during the 1700s and 1800s, and were believed to be extinct by the beginning of the 20th century. Luckily, some survived and the species has been revived. The population is now nearing 7,500. Though they have been rebounding, they still remain the rarest of the Fur Seals . Guadalupe Fur Seals breed exclusively on Guadalupe Island , off of the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The location is a protected sanctuary. When not breeding, the seals have occasionally been found up towards California and the Channel Islands. Guadalupe Fur Seals exhibit incredible sexual dimorphism. Males can weigh nearly 4 times more than the females! However, females tend to live longer. Their life expectancy (around 23 years) is close to double that of a males (only 13 years). During the mating season males will protect territories and mate with all females inside of their range (usually 4-12 in total). Interestingl


Alosa pseudoharengus The Alewife is a member of the herring family that was originally found off of the Atlantic Coast. Though they are still exist in that range, over the last fifty years they have become an invasive species in the Great Lakes. In the 1950s, Alewives used the Welland Canal in Ontario to get around Niagara Falls and enter the Great Lakes. Around that same time, Sea Lamprey also invaded, killing off many of the large prey species that would have normally consumed the Alewives. Lack of predation allowed the species to spread, and they are now most abundant in Lake Michigan and in Lake Huron. Though they are still abundant in the Great Lakes, the population is more in check than it once was. This is due to the introduction of predator species like stocked Trout and Salmon. Unfortunately, the Alewives still vie for food (mostly zooplankton) with other fish, and have negatively affected other populations because of that  competition . Atlantic Alewives are anadro

Channel Catfish

Ictalurus punctatus The Channel Catfish is the most common, and most frequently angled , Catfish in North America. Their range stretches from southern Canada to northern Mexico, and they'll live in just about any fresh body of water that provides them with adequate food and water temperature. You can identify a Channel Catfish by taking a look at its tail. They have very deep forked tails when compared to other Catfish species. They also tend of have dark spots on the top side, though in older fish they may merge together. Channel Catfish can grow to pretty large sizes over their 40 year lifespan, and the food that they eat changes with their size. As young fish they are more omnivorous, eating small critters and plant matter. But as they grow larger they are more and more carnivorous, eating fish, reptiles, and even birds! The Channel Catfish themselves are preyed on frequently when they are in the egg to juvenile phases, but full grown adults have far fewer predators.

Hyacinth Macaw

Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus The Hyacinth Macaw is a stunning member of the Parrot family that can be found in parts of Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. They are the longest Parrots in the world, and the largest flying species. But they do not take the top prize for heaviest- that honor of course goes to our flightless Kakapo friends. You can tell you are looking at a Hyacinth due to its vibrant blue coloration accented by yellow around the eyes and beak. There is another parrot species, the Lears Macaw, that has the same colors but a much smaller in size. Hyacinth Macaws might look like jungle dwelling birds, but they are actually more common in grasslands and semi-wooded areas. They feed on different types of seed and nut, using their strong bills to crack them open. But interestingly, there are some palm nuts that the Macaws will eat only after they have soften... by going through the digestive tracts of livestock. Hyacinth Macaws are an endangered species, and are protected