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Showing posts from 2011


Ah, the Chamois, one of my favorite quadrupeds. How could one not be smitten with their cute little backwards "J" horns? Rupicapra rupicapra Chamois (pronounced Sham-Wah!) are antelope-like goats that can be found throughout Europe. In fact, there are more than half a dozen location-based subspecies, all of which live in mountainous areas. They inhabit ranges from the Alps in France, all the way over in the Caucasians and Carpathians. They have also been introduced to New Zealand. It is unsurprising that, due to their mountainous lifestyle, they have developed great speed and agility over the steep terrain. Female Chamois and their young live in small groups, while the adult males are solitary and only interact with others during the breeding season. Males will fight fiercely for the right to breed, and will drive away the young males from the family groups, occasionally killing them ! Interestingly, Chamois are not hunted for their meat, as many other ungulates are

Black Sparrowhawk

Accipiter melanoleucus The Black Sparrowhawk is one of many species of Hawk found within the genus Accipiter . They measure less than two feet from head to tail, but are the largest of all the Sparrowhawks. This particular species can be found throughout Sub-Saharan Africa , living in just about any non-desert ecosystem that also supports large trees for nesting. Black Sparrowhwaks are very particular about the trees that they nest in; the foliage must provide good coverage for the offspring, and the tree cannot be too deep into the forest. Black Sparrowhwaks form monogamous pair bonds for life, and it is not at all uncommon for a pair to raise multiple broods at a time. They typically have two nests going at once, with a second set of eggs laid when the first set of chicks as fledged but have not yet left their parents care. Suburban areas have been good for the species, as they absolutely love hunting doves and pigeons which have increased in number along with man-made deve

Asian Ostrich

I don't have very much to say about today's animal, as there isn't a whole lot known about it. The frustrations of extinct species, right? Modern Ostrich I picked the Asian Ostrich today because I read this really interesting article on Chinese Phoenixes. They have been depicted in art for thousands and thousands of years, but where they really an Ostrich? Giant Ostriches lived up until the end of the last Ice Age, around 10,000 years ago. Phoenix Imagery has been appearing for 7,000 years, so was the Giant Ostrich, which roamed about China , the source of this myth? Makes you wonder what other now extinct creatures inspired the animals of legend! IUCN Status :  Extinct for around 10,000 years Location :   Asia Classification :  Phylum : Chordata -- Class : Aves -- Order : Struthioniformes Family : Struthionidae -- Genus : Struthio -- Species : S. asiaticus

Red Spitting Cobra

Naja pallida As its name hints at, the Red Spitting Cobra spits. They have fangs that allow them to spray venom from their mouths, and they are very accurate too. A Red Spitting Cobra can hit a target from 8ft (2.5m) away ! When you consider their small size (only a few feet long) that is quite the distance! Red Spitting Cobras live in the grasslands, deserts, and savannas of East Africa. They are a terrestrial species, and feed on small mammals, other reptiles, and birds and bird eggs. They typically rear up and spit when they feel threatened. Did you know that these snakes can be kept as pets in many countries? Their captivity doesn't make them any less dangerous, and one snake owner died after being spit on by his pet just a few months back. In the wild they very rarely cause human deaths. IUCN Status :  Not Evaluated Location :   East   Africa Size :  Length around 4ft (1.2m) Classification :  Phylum : Chordata -- Class : Reptilia -- Order : Squamata Suborder :

Shortfin Mako Shark

Isurus oxyrinchus Yesterday we talked about the Viviparous Lizard, a reptile that gives birth to live young. Today's animal, the Shortfin Mako Shark, also gives birth to live young and are Ovoviviparous. This means that their young are incubated inside their bodies, but inside an egg sac, not a placenta. Once the eggs hatch, the offspring practice Oophagy while still in the uterus. This means that they consume all of the unfertilized or underdeveloped eggs. Gestation can last as long as 18 months, and as many as 18 pups can be born at a time! Shortfin Mako Sharks also have the interesting distinction of being very, very fast . Their bodies are remarkable hydrodynamic, and they have been clocked at speeds of 31mph (50kph). Their is even some evidence that they can swim in fast bursts of 46mph (74kph)! They can also leap several feet into the air! One biological feature that allows them to move so fast is their circulatory system. It allows their body to be several degrees

Viviparous Lizard

Meet the northernmost reptile in the entire world- the Viviparous Lizard! They can be found across Europe and Asia, have a very large range, and can live as far north as Arctic Russia! Zootoca vivipara Now, I believe at some point we've discussed the whole Viviparous-Oviparous thing, but let's rehash anyway. These terms all relate to how a create gives birth. Viviparous means they have live young. Oviparous means they lay eggs. That means that, due to its name, this little lizard gives birth to live young ! (Though if we want to get technical, they do still lay eggs, but they are incubated inside the mother, making them Ovoviviparous) Viviparous Lizards are small little guys, and only grow a few inches long (though their tail can doubel their body length!) They are very agile and fast , and they use that speed to both hide from predators, and to hunt after their own invertebrate prey. Because they are still cold blooded, and because they live so far north, Viviparous

Red Drum

On the twelfth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me... Twelve Drummers drumming... Sciaenops ocellatus And we've reached the final day! Huzzah! Today's animal is the Red Drum, also known as the Channel Bass or Spottail Bass. This particular species is the only member of its genus, and can be found in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Red Drums are fast growing fish, and can reach 11in long in only a year. They can reach length of up to 5ft overall! By 3 years they have reached sexual maturity, and the oldest recorded individual lived to be 37! These fish are typically a coppery red, like their name implies, but they can also be a darker black or in a lighter silver. They can be identified by a large black spot that appears on the tail base . Sometimes you will find even more black spots, but it is rare to have no spots at all. The species name ocellatus  even means "marked with spots!" Red Drums are carnivores, and they use their downturned mouth

Upland Sandpiper

On the eleventh day of Christmas, my true love gave to me... Eleven Pipers piping... Bartramia longicauda Wow, only one more day to go! And after a few days' break we are back to the birds. The Upland Sandpiper is an interesting little bird in that it doesn't inhabit shores like other Sandpipers do. Instead, they make themselves comfortably at home in open grasslands. In some areas of the American Northeast, they've even taken to nesting in Airports ! Upland Sandpipers are a migratory species that spend their summers up in the United States and Canada (sometimes as far north as Alaska!) and their Winters down in countries like Brazil and Argentina. They nest during the summer, scraping multiple depressions into the ground, but using only one to lay their eggs. This makes it more difficult to locate their actual nest, and keeps the eggs and young birds safe. Though they are listed as being of Least Concern , Upland Sandpipers have faced a decline in numbers, and

Irish Lord Fish

On the tenth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me... Ten Lords a'leaping... Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus Finally, a fish makes it to our list! Though I must say, when I mentally picture a lord, it looks nothing like this odd ocean dweller. The common name of this fish is a little confusing. Despite being called the Red Irish Lord, they are not native to anywhere even remotely close to Ireland; they are found in the Pacific Ocean! They also comes in many, many colors besides red, and can even change color to match their surroundings . How perplexing! Red Irish Lords may look a bit familiar to you. They are members of the large Scopaeniformes superfamily, which also includes Rockfish. Like the Rockfish, Red Irish Lords are carnivores. They live close to shore on rocky reefs at depths of less than 1,500ft (450m) and hunt  crustaceans, mussels, and barnacles  by waiting patiently and them ambushing them. Red Irish Lords are also pretty good dads! After mating, the fema

Painted Lady Butterfly

On the ninth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me... Nine ladies dancing... Vanessa cardui Meet the Painted Lady, one of the most widespread Butterflies on the entire planet! They can be found living in temperate areas of just about every continent (except South America and Antarctica... though Antarctica isn't temperate anyway) Painted Lady Butterflies live their lives in four stages . They start as eggs, which are laid on thistle leaves and hatch after 3-5 days. Then they live for another week or so as a spiny black Caterpillar that eats the thistle leaves that they were laid on. After that they pupate for up to 10 days before turning into an adult. The Butterfly can fly only a few hours after emerging with their fancy new wings. Over the course of their lifetime, a Painted Lady Butterfly may travel up to 1,000 miles! This is pretty amazing when you realize that they are only adults for a couple of weeks at best. It can take multiple generations to make the full tr

Milking Shorthorn

On the eighth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me... eight maids a'milking... Milking Shorthorn And now we come to the half the song proliferated by humans in various occupations. And because this is "Animal-A-Day" and not "Random-Profession-For-Hire-A-Day," we'll be getting a bit creative for the remainder of the entries. Though to be honest, today's entry isn't that far out of the box. Milking maids? A dairy cow? Not altogether unexpected. At any rate, the Milking Shorthorn, which is also referred to as the Dairy Shorthorn depending on the country, is a relatively old breed of Cattle that was developed as an offshoot of the Shorthorn Breed. The Shorthorn and Milking Shorthorn have the same ancestry , but have been adapted to serve different purposes. Milking Shorthorns were fist developed in Northern England during the late 18th century, and were exported to the United States, New Zealand, and Australia during the next few decades.

Black-necked Swan

On the seventh day of Christmas, my true love gave to me... Seven Swans a'swimming... Cygnus melancoryphus Ah yes, another day another bird. Did you know that if you were to actually buy all these gifts (the real versions in the song, not the animal equivalents like Dragonflies) you would shell out the most money for the Swans? The Swans in the song are probably not the Swans we're talking about today. I'd place bets on the Mute Swan, which is widespread in Europe and Asia. But I've already written about that particular species, so today we'll learn about it's different, South American cousin. Black-necked Swans are named for their black necks that contrast with an otherwise white body. They also sport bright red knobs at the base of the bill that enlarge (on males) during the breeding season. The Black-necked Swan is interesting in that it is both the largest native Waterfowl in South America, and also the smallest of all the Swans. They also hav

Orinoco Goose

On the sixth day of Christmas my true love gave to me... six Geese a'laying... Neochen jubata Do not fear bird people! After yesterday's Dragonfly we return to the world of feathered friends. Allow me to introduce you to the Orinoco Goose, a small species of Goose found in the northern, rainforested areas of South America. The are the only true forest Goose . I find Orinoco Geese to be rather lovely in appearance . The contrast between the cream neck, the pink legs, and the chestnut and black wings creates a pleasing color composition (using my Art History degree!). Unlike many of our other Christmas birds so far, both male and female Orinoco Geese display the same plumage, though the males are slightly larger. Once upon a time the Orinoco Goose was one of the most populous waterfowl species along the Orinoco River. Unfortunately, hunting and deforestation has caused their numbers to decline and they are now rare in many parts of their original range. Projects are un

Golden-ringed Dragonfly

On the fifth day of Christmas my true love gave to me... Five Golden Rings! Cordulegaster boltonii Well, after four days of birds (don't worry, there are still a few more to go for you bird-lovers!) we finally have a whole different type of critter... though it still has wings. Meet the Golden-ringed Dragonfly, the longest Dragonfly in the entire United Kingdom. The species is named for its black body and and the golden bands that pattern down its length. They can be found near streams and rivers of all sizes, and are abundant throughout Great Britain . Female Golden-ringed Dragonflies are a tad bit larger than the males. This is due to the presence of an ovipositor at the ends of their abdomens. This is the organ used for laying eggs, which is a process done by flying over the river banks and jabbing the abdomen into the sediment. Eggs hatch in a few days and the Dragonfly larvae remain in the sediment for as long as 5 years! They undergo numerous molts before finally r

Superb Lyrebird

On the fourth day of Christmas my true love gave to me... four calling birds... Male Superb Lyrebird Alright, today's animal was a little less specific on type. We've had Partridges, which are contained in one family. We've had Turtledoves, a term that relates to only a few species. But now we have "Calling Birds," which I've taken to mean some sort of songbirds (though this one source claims it refers to Blackbirds , which is an interesting read.) Anyway, my choice to go with a songbird puts me in a pickle, as songbirds aren't found in just one genus, or family. Nope, that's an entire order. So you know what? Let's go big. And awesome. Or dare I say... Superb? Meet the Superb Lyrebird, one of the largest, longest, and heaviest songbirds on the planet. Not the petite little guy that typically comes to mind when you think of the song, huh? These birds live in the forests of Australia, and are sexually dimorphic . Females are brownish-gray,


Rooster and Hen On the third day of Christmas my true love gave to me... three French Hens... Faverolles are one of the many breeds of Chicken out there that originated in France . They are named after one of the cities in which they were developed, back in the 1850s. The breed is a great all purpose chicken, good for both meat and eggs, and they are excellent egg layers even in the winter months. I chose Faverolles as the "French Hen" today because I think they look delightfully awesome. They have feathered feet, muffs, and  beards. That's a lot of fluff on a Chicken! They come in three recognized color varieties, white, salmon, and mahogany. One really neat thing about Faverolles roosters is that they aren't as  aggressive  as roosters of other breeds. Both males and females are calm and good natured, and they do well in colder weather. Status :  Domesticated, listed as Threatened by the ALBC Location :   France Size :  Weight up to 8lbs (3.6kg) Clas

European Turtledove

On the second day of Christmas my true love gave to me, two Turtledoves... Streptopelia turtur Day two introduces us to the European Turtledove, a mostly-migratory member of the Pigeon family that lives in Europe during the spring and summer, and Africa during the autumn and winter. They can also be found as far east as China, and some populations that live in warmer areas (North Africa for example) remain there year round. Do you know where Turtledoves get their name ? It has nothing to do with a reptilian connection! It actually comes from their Latin species name turtur, which describes the purring sounds that they make. It's a good thing there are two Turtledoves gifted in the song, because these birds live in pairs throughout the breeding season. Both sexes help to incubate the eggs, and the young Doves are off and on their own after only 20 days! Outside of the breeding season the Turtledoves tend to live in large flocks. Groups that number into the thousands can

Crested Partridge

Male Rollulus rouloul Surprise! It's a theme week! (Or... two weeks-ish). I realized I haven't done one of these in ages and ages, and I was inspired by this years Cost of 12 Days of Christmas . So we're doing the song! On the first day of Christmas my true love gave to me, a Partridge in a pear tree. Well, we don't really cover plants here, so sorry Pear Tree. Partridge gets all the spotlight today! Meet the Crested Partridge, a stunning little fellow found in Southeast Asia. The species is sexually dimorphic; males are black with brilliant red crests, while females are green with brown wings. Female Crested Partridges can be found in dense, lowland, forested areas. They need lots of cover to survive, as they both feed and nest on the ground. These birds are omnivores that consume fruits, nuts, insects, and snails, and there are even reports of them working with wild pigs , picking up the food bits that the hogs leave behind. They typically forage in pa

Atlantic Tarpon

Atlantic Tarpons are large saltwater fish that live in the coastal waters of the (surprise!) Atlantic Ocean. They live on both sides of the ocean, are are typically found in tropical and subtropical waters, though their range extends into Nova Scotia and southern Argentina. Megalops atlanticus Atlantic Tarpon are slow growing fish, and don't reach sexual maturity until age 6 or 7. Males can live to around 30, while females can have lifespans of over 50 years! In those decades the fish can grow rather large. Fish measuring 8ft long and 350lbs have been recorded. As adults, Tarpon use their large size to hunt down and swallow other fish whole. One really cool feature of the Atlantic Tarpon is that it has a modified swim bladder that allows it to gulp down air. This give the fish an advantage when swimming in waters that are low in oxygen. Studies have also suggested that as juveniles, the Tarpon MUST breathe atmospheric air in order to survive. The Atlantic Tarpon is the S

Indian Palm Squirrel

Funambulus palmarum Indian Palm Squirrels are also sometimes referred to as Three-Striped Palm Squirrels, due to the patterning on their backs. They are found as a native species in India and Sri Lanka , and were intoduced to Australia where they have become quite the nuisance. Did you know that the Indian Palm Squirrel has it's own Hindu legend? According to the story, a bridge was being built by Lord Rama, and a small squirrel decided to help by carrying small rocks and pebbles, all the while chanting Rama's name. He was so impressed by the contribution of this tiny animal that he stroked her back, leaving stripes where his fingers would've touched. Indian Palm Squirrels are a very adaptable, and are able to live in a variety of habitats. Unsurprisingly, they have taken to urban areas just as well as wild ones. They eat fruits, nuts, insects, and eggs. As previously mentioned, Indian Palm Squirrels have become an invasive species in Australia . They consume cro

Giant Koala

Giant Koala Model Thousands and a millions of years ago, Australia went through a boom of Megafauna. Cow-sized Wombats! Huge Kangaroos! Massive Snakes! There was even a Giant Koala! Unfortunately... the Giant Koala wasn't really all that giant . Fossils demonstrate that the species was about 1.3 larger, but much heavier and more robust. What makes the species really interesting is that they happened to live side by side with modern Koalas. They were not their ancestors, but rather their genus sharing cousins. This brings up questions regarding where Koalas actually came from, as for a long time they were considered to be descendants of the Giant Koalas. So far the fossil record hasn't provided the full picture (which is common, as there are very exact conditions that must be met for something to fossilize). Unfortunately, we do not know what caused the extinction of the Giant Koala. But with modern Koalas facing a similar fate, we may see history tragically  repeat i

Queen Alexandra's Birdwing

Male (top) and Female (bottom) Meet the largest Butterfly in the entire world - the Queen Alexandra's Birdwing. We learned about a different Birdwing species not too long ago, so you may already be aware that the members of the genus tend to grow really large, and this Butterfly is the largest of them all. The Wingspan of the Queen Alexandra's Birdwing can grow to as large as a foot, and the females are the larger sex (males grow only to around half the size!). The sexes actually look quite different from one another. Females have broad, rounded, brown and white marked wings. Males have narrower wings that are dark, but are flecked with iridescent blues and greens. Females of the species will lay around 27 eggs in their lifetime, depositing them on  Aristolochia schlechteri  vines. Upon hatching the larvae feed on their own eggshell, and then move on to the plant.   The plants produce an acid that causes the Larvae and adult Butterflies to become poisonous to predator

Miniature Horse

Miniature Horse The term "Miniature Horse" is often thought of as more of a designation than a breed, though in the last few decades a few organizations have popped up to make Miniature Horses an actual, standardized breed that is separate from other small equines like Falabellas and Ponies. Miniature Horses were developed from all sorts of different horse and pony breeds, both large and small. Shetlands and Dartmoors are among those ponies that can be found in their history. There is some argument over whether Miniatures are Ponies or small Horses. The definition of a Pony is a horse under 14 hands (56in). As Miniatures are under 34-38in (depending on registry), they fall within this category. However,  if you look at the basic body shape of many Miniatures, the proportions are more horse-like. Different organizations prefer different looks , as there is no universal standard. Guide Horse Miniature Horses serve many different purposes . They are companion animal

Red-Billed Streamertail

So yesterday we learned about the National Bird of Singapore, a Sunbird that has many characteristics of the New World Hummingbirds. So today let's learn about a Hummingbird that also happens to have a National Bird designation! Meet the Red-Billed Streamertail, also known as the Doctor Bird. It is endemic to the island of Jamaica , and is the country's National Bird. They are even found on stamps ! Female Male Trochilus polytmus As a Hummingbird, the Streamertails are small little guys. The males' tail feathers are actually longer than the rest of their bodies! As with many birds, males and females have different appearances. Males have the name-inspiring tails, red bills, and bright green bodies. The name " Doctor Bird " is also a reference to the tails, as they resemble old fashioned coat tails. Females have no streamers, dark bills, and greyish, brownish green coloration. Red-Billed Streamertails feed on nectar and small insects, and live in a v

Crimson Sunbird

Aethopyga siparaja Though they aren't actually related, Sunbirds and Hummingbirds have quite a bit in common. Today's animal, the Crimson Sunbird, is very small in size (only about 4in long), flies incredibly fast, and consumes nectar. They can even hover while feeding, though they usually perch, and are unable to fly backwards. Because Hummingbirds live only in the New World, Sunbirds fill their ecological niche in the Old! Crimson Sunbirds exhibit sexual dimorphism through their coloration. The common name for the species refers exclusive to the males, who have vibrant red breasts. Females are significantly less colorful, with olive-green feathers covering most of the body. Crimson Sunbirds are distributed throughout South Asia, and have been divided into fifteen  subspecies. Overall they are not a threatened species, due to their extensive range. They are even the National Bird of Singapore! IUCN Status :  Least Concern Location :   Southern Asia Size :  Lengt


Phacochoerus africanus Let me introduce you to the majestic Warthog, the pig king of the Savanna! Did you know that Warthogs are, in fact, the only pigs to have adapted to life in open, exceptionally dry habitats? Other species are forest dwellers that cannot go without for extended periods like the Warthogs can. So why does a Warthog have warts? Well actually... they don't. The bumps on their faces are thick skin pads that are used for protection. These come in handy during the mating season when males fight each other over females. Though the fights can get vicious, the males rarely are seriously injured thanks to the cushioning on their faces. Warthogs are split up into four separate subspecies that are distributed throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. They live in family groups that are typically comprised of a female an her young, though sometimes females pair up with other (often related) females, and live in larger groups. Males are typically solitary, and only interact

White-Throated Monitor

Varanus albigularis albigularis The White-Throated Monitor is a subspecies of Rock Monitor that lives in both open and wooded habitats in southern Africa. They have very muscular limbs, long bodies, and powerful tails. Their tails are so strong, in fact, that when the Monitors are threatened they will use them to lash out at attackers . They also puff up their bodies and hiss. The subspecies is typically found on the ground, but they are able to climb trees as well. They head up to hunt and to avoid the animals that prey on them (like Honey Badgers). White-Throated Monitors are incredibly voracious eaters, especially during the wet season that falls between January and March. They will pretty much eat anything that they can easily capture, from small insects, to birds, to snakes. One really interesting fact is that the Monitors are very conscious of their caloric intake. They will try and eat animals that can give them the most benefit with the least amount of catching effort.


Dulus dominicus Meet the Palmchat, a special little birds that is endemic to the island of Hispaniola. It also has the designation of being the national bird of the Dominican Republic. Why is the Palmchat so special? Because it is the only member of its entire family ! Its taxonomy has been a bit disputed from there, but some believe that is it most closely related to the Waxwings, a group of birds that pretty far away from the Palmchat's island. Palmchats live in flocks and inhabit semi-open areas. They are herbivores that forage for fruits, berries, and even flowers. The species is very social, and they produce a variety of loud calls. IUCN Status :  Least Concern Location :   Hispaniola Size :  Length 8in (20cm) Classification :  Phylum : Chordata -- Class : Aves -- Order : Passeriformes Family : Dulidae -- Genus : Dulus -- Species : D. dominicus


Recreation of the fossil site When we talk about extinct, prehistoric reptiles, we are usually talking about the Dinosaurs, but they definitely weren't the only scaly creatures crawling around millions of years ago. Today's animals, Sanajeh indicus  was a species of snake that not only lived with the dinosaurs.... it actually ate their children. Snakes first appeared around 98 million years ago , but the fossils from that long ago are few, fragmented, and are typically just scattered vertebrae. Not so with the 67 million year old Sanajeh. The holotype specimen (the fossil to which all other fossils of the species are compared) actually has a near complete skull and lower jaw, along with several segmented sections of vertebrae. What is even more awesome, however, is the way in which the fossil was found - it's coiled around a Dinosaur nest , complete with baby Dinosaur! After study of the fossil, which was found in India, it was determined that the Snake was in the p