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Showing posts from December, 2010

Asian Small-Clawed Otter

( Image Source ) The Asian Small-Clawed Otter, ( Aonyx cinerea ) also known as the Oriental Small-Clawed Otter, can be found in freshwater wetlands and swamps of South and Southeast Asia, as well as in Indonesia and the Philippines. They have slender, short furred bodies, with very small, blunt claws (hence the name). Their feet are not fully webbed, which gives them increased dexterity with their hands. This allows them to catch prey- which includes Crustaceans, Mollusks, small Mammals, and Fish- with their hands rather than just with their mouths like other Otters do. Asian Small-Clawed Otters have a couple more cool features. They are the smallest of all the Otters, weighing in at a maximum of 10lb (4.5kg) and measuring up to 24in (61cm). They are also the most vocal. They make about a dozen different sounds , each with its own specific meaning. They also have excellent vision both above and below water. ( Image Source ) These Otters live in small, female-dominated grou


Profile with "Tearmarks" The Cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) is the only living member of it's genus and is found in populations across east and south Africa, though they historically had a much wider range that spread throughout Asia. Other, now extinct members of the genus, including the Giant Cheetah, spread into Europe as well. Cheetahs have long, slender bodies, and are smaller in size than many other big cats. Their top weight is around 140lbs (64kg). Leopards, Jaguars, and Cheetahs are all spotted big cats, but Cheetahs are easy to distinguish based on their body shape. They possess deep chests, long legs, and small heads that sport two well defined black "tearmark" streaks that run from the eyes to the snout. The physical features of the Cheetah all serve to enhance their speed and hunting style. For example, they have claws that only partially retract and serve as "cleats" for running traction . Their small heads also have small teeth that

Goliath Grouper

Measuring in at lengths of up to 8ft (2.5m), the Goliath Grouper ( Epinephelus itajara ) certainly lives up to its name. This giant, which tips the scales at around 800lbs (360kg), is found in the tropical Atlantic waters off of West Africa and the Americas, and in the Pacific from California to Peru. They are the largest members of the family Serranidae. ( Image Source ) Goliath Groupers have large, stocky bodies that are nearly half as wide as they are long. Adults sport small spots across their greenish-brownish-greyish scales, and smaller individuals tend to have vertical bars down their sides.They have three to five rows of teeth in the lower jaw, though they are rarely used. Groupers are carnivores and consume fish and crustaceans, but they swallow their prey whole . While young, Goliath Groupers are preyed upon by other fish, but once full grown Sharks and Humans are their only real predators. Goliath Groupers have a long lifespans; they reach sexual maturity around 6

Elf Owl

( Image Source ) Elf Owls ( Micrathene whitneyi ) are very small Owls that live in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Their habitats include riparian woodlands, brushland, and desert. Nests are often built within old Woodpecker-created cavities, and are found in either trees or large, saguaro cacti. They are nocturnal birds, and possess excellent eyesight and hearing. Elf Owls are one of the smallest of the Owl species, growing to about the size of a sparrow. They measure about 5in (13cm) long, and sport a 9in (23cm) wingspan. Elf Owls have rounded heads with no ear tufts, and sport greyish-brown plumage and white "eyebrows." They are also identified by their distinctive vocalizations . Due to their size, Elf Owls hunt only very small prey- almost exclusively arthropods. They do most of their capturing while in mid-flight, as they are very agile flyers .  Prey is then brought back to a perch, torn apart, and consumed.  Elf Owls themselves have numerous predat


70 million years ago, on the island of Madagascar, there lived a frog, but it was not just any frog. Beelzebufo   ampinga  was the largest frog to have ever lived... so large in fact that it may have actually consumed dinosaur hatchlings. ( Image Source ) Let's compare, shall we? The largest frog alive today is the Goliath Frog of West Africa. It can grow up to 12in (30cm) and weigh 7lbs (3.2kg). Beelzebufo was over 16in (40.6cm) and weighed 10lbs (4.6kg)! Beelzebufo is notable not only for its size, but also for what it says about Madagascar and its connection to the continent of South America. It was previously believed that the connection was lost as long as 120 million year ago, but Beelzevufo's close relationship to modern South American Ceratophyrine (Pac-man) Frogs, suggests that the island and the continent were linked for much longer. Beelzebufo was more than twice the size of its closest living relative, but they all possess the same large mouths and power

Red Kangaroo

( Image Source ) For boxing day let's take a look at a boxing beast! Red Kangaroos are the largest of the marsupials, with males weighing up to 200lbs (90kg) and standing close to 6ft (1.8m) tall. They live in the inland areas of Australia, residing in open scrub and grasslands. Red Kangaroos ( Macropus rufus ) are quick and  powerful , with strong legs an sharp claws. They can hop at speeds of up to 39mph (64kph) and can jump in strides of 25 ft (8m) and go as high vertically as 6f t(1.8m).  During the breeding season males will fight over mates by leaning back on their tails and "boxing" with their feet.  Like all marsupials, Red Kangaroos give birth to tiny, tiny offspring that then continue to develop and grow inside  of a pouch. Young Kangaroos, called Joeys , are only 2.5cm at birth. They crawl into the pouch, latch on to a nipple, and don't emerge again for 2 months. Joeys remain with their mothers for about 8 months after birth. Red Kangaroos li

Polar Bear

( Image Source ) I was going to write about Reindeer for the holidays... but then I remembered that I had already talked about them a while back. So instead we'll discuss another creature of the North Pole, the aptly named Polar Bear. The Polar Bear ( Ursus martimus ) is one of the largest land carnivores on the entire planet, with adult males weighing up to 1,700lbs (771kg). They are perfectly adapted for a cold weather environment, sporting think fur everywhere, including on their feet. The fur is white to camouflage them in the snow, but underneath their skin is black, which allows them to soak up heat more quickly. They are also excellent swimmers. Though they are technically omnivores, Polar Bears feed mostly on other animals. Seals make up a large part of their diet, and are hunted by waiting on the ice near breathing holes where Seals surface for air. They do also feed on carrion, fish, birds, and some vegetation. Some bears will travel thousands of miles in a yea

Steller's Sea Eagle

( Image Source ) The Steller's Sea Eagle ( Haliaeetus pelagicus ) is an enormous raptor found on the Eastern Russian coast, as well as in Japan and parts of Korea. They inhabit coastal cliffs, as well as forested areas near bodies of water. Steller's Sea Eagles are the largest members of their genus, sporting a wingspan of up to 8ft (2.4m) and weighing up to 18lbs (8kg). They are among the largest and heaviest of the Raptors. Steller's Sea Eagles are sexually dimorphic, with the females growing much larger than the males. Both sexes feature very striking coloring , with a dark body and white shoulders, legs, and tails. They also sport very large, yellow beaks and yellow feet. Their beaks and feet aid them in catching and tearing apart their prey. They feed off of Salmon, other fish species, small mammals, and birds. The Eagles hunt by waiting at a perch before diving down on a targeted animal. Steller's Sea Eagles are also practitioners of kleptoparasitism, meani

Dall Sheep

( Image Source ) Dall Sheep inhabit the areas of the Northwestern United States and Western Canada.. They live in a variety of habitats but are typically alpine, as they are very sure-footed and can use such terrain to escape predators . Dall Sheep are herbivores that feed off of a variety of grasses. Until the age of about three, males and females look exactly the same... and then the horns begin to grow. Males grows horns made of keratin, and they may be as old as eight years before a full horn spiral is completed. Females also grow horns, but they are shorter and much more slender. ( Image Source ) Dall Sheep have a very well organized social system. Ewes, lambs, and very young rams live in one group, while adult rams live in another. These two groups will not associate with each other until mating season takes place in November and December. Over the summer, the adult rams will fights each other to establish a dominance ranking come breeding time. It is the most domina

Spotted Garden Eel

The Spotted Garden Eel ( Heteroconger hassi )is a species of Conger Eel native to the tropical marine waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They are found in sandy areas at depths of between 20 and 150ft (6-15m). Spotted Garden Eels get their names from the spotted patterning on their bodies, and they measure up to 23in (60cm) in length. ( Image Source ) Spotted Garden Eels live out their lives in massive colonies that can number over 1,000 individuals. Each Eel lives in its own burrow, which is created by making its body rigid and by driving into the sand tail first. Spotted Garden Eels spend nearly all of their time in these burrows, positioning themselves to face currents that carry food. When threatened, they will retreat downward into the sand. Some colonies even live among sea grasses to provide better camouflage. These defensive strategies do not make them 100% safe from predators . Snake Eels will dig into the sand and attack from underground, while oth

Common Tapeworm

And now for something kind of gross... The Common Tapeworm ( Dipylidium caninum ) is a parasite found in intestinal tracts around the world. It most commonly affects dogs and cats, though humans can also prey host to these creatures. Common Tapeworms require fleas in order to reproduce, and so must be in an environment that supports them as well. They can reach up to 20in (51cm) in length. ( Image Source ) Tapeworm biology and reproduction is actually pretty fascinating. They attach to their host with a scolex, a hook like structure on their heads. Common Tapeworms are also hermaphroditic, and continuously grow new body segments during their lifetime. Each one of these segments contains an independent digestive and reproductive tract. New segments grow closer to the head, pushing the older ones farther and farther back until they drop off as an egg sac. These sacs eventually leave their host via feces. And it just gets weirder . These eggs will hatch into larvae, but the larva

Pygmy Shrew

If you couldn't tell from the name, the Pygmy Shrew is a tiny little guy, typically measuring less than 2in (52mm). They also weigh next to nothing, at a whopping .14oz (4g)! They are found across Europe and Asia and are one of the world's smallest mammals. ( Image Source ) Pygmy Shrews are so tiny that they aren't even able to hibernate; they have nowhere to store any fat reserves. They also have ridiculously fast metabolisms which force them to consume 125% of their own body weight every single day. Pygmy Shrews eat invertebrates like spiders, grasshoppers, and beetles. Females give birth to multiple litters each year, each containing 4-7 young. They age quickly, and only live about a  year and a half at the maximum. Pygmy Shrews are listed as being of least concern. Their population is stable, but their small size does make them susceptible to environmental changes.

Common Kingsnake

California Kingsnake  ( Lampropeltis getula californiae ) Common Kingsnakes ( Lampropeltis getula ) are native to the United States and Mexico, living in a wide variety of terrestrial habitats including forests, fields, scrublands, and near bodies of water. There are eight named subspecies. Common Kingsnakes measure 30-85in (76-216cm) and are identified by their shiny scales and dark and light banded pattern. Their coloration can vary depending on subspecies population and location, but they are most commonly either brown or black with white bands. Desert Kingsnake ( Lampropeltis getula splendida ) One really interesting fact about he Common Kingsnake is that it is immune to the venom of rattlesnakes  and several other venomous snake species. Because of this, the Kingsnakes are actually able to kill and consume these snakes, though they also feed on birds, rodents, amphibians, other reptiles, and eggs. Essentially, they will kill and consume whatever they can overpower. They


( Image Source ) Olms are absolutely fascinating creatures with some amazing adaptations for the environment that they live in. You see, they are the only cave dwelling vertebrates found exclusively in Europe, and are found in parts of Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Olms are members of a very ancient line of amphibians that diverged from its nearest living relatives during the Jurassic period over 190 million years ago! There are currently six living species in this line, including Mudpuppies . As mentioned, Olms live in caves, exclusively underwater . Because they live in light-less environments, they lack most pigmentation in their skin, and they have essentially lost their sense of sight (their eyes are actually covered with skin and serve only as basic light sensors). To make up for the darkness, Olms have developed their other senses to an amazing degree. They are able to sense other organisms in the water using a chemical receptor in their taste bu

Asian Palm Civet

The Asian Palm Civet ( Paradoxurus hermaphroditus ) is a viverrid found in tropical forests throughout Asia, though they are mostly concentrated in the South and South East areas. They have a rather interesting look to them, almost like a cat crossed with a weasel. They have body lengths of up to 21in (53cm) with a tail of about the same length. They weigh 4-10lbs (2-5kg). Asian Palm Civets are also known as Toddy Cats and Common Palm Civets. ( Image Source ) Asian Palm Civets are nocturnal and terrestrial . They come out at night to feed without as much risk from predation, and their diet consists of small mammals and insects, as well as fruits and other native vegetation. They are solitary animals, and really only come together during the brief breeding season. Liters range from 2-5 young. One interesting fact about the Asian Palm Civet is that they eat whole coffee beans. These beans pass through their digestive system whole and are then harvested from their fec

Beluga Whale

( Image Source ) Belugas Whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) are very iconic whales with their all white adult bodies, short beaks, absent dorsal fins, and large "melon" foreheads. They are found in the waters of the Arctic, and migrate to sub-artic waters to stay away from freezing ice. Belugas can grow to sizes of up to 20ft (6.1m). Did you know that Beluga Whales are not always white? As calves they are a darker gray color, which gradually lightens as they age. They will reach their full white color by around age 5. Females gestate for 14 months, and a newborn calf can measure 4-6ft (1.4m) long. Calves remain with their mothers for up to two years, and feed off of milk that is 28% fat in order to grow and maintain warmth in the cold waters. Beluga Pod Belugas are extremely social creatures. They live in pods that communicate through a variety of whistles, mimics, and clicks. They are also rather unique among Cetaceans in that they have non-fused neck vertebrae, w

Giant Freshwater Stingray

( Image Source ) The Giant Freshwater Stingray ( Himantura chaophraya ) is a massive, massive fish found in the tropical river waters of South East Asia and Australia. They can grow to sizes of over 94in across (about 240cm) and the largest specimen caught weighed 1,322lbs (600kg). Even their young are huge! They are an ovoviviparous species whose offspring can measure 13in (34cm) at birth! Giant Freshwater Stringrays are in fact dangerous to humans, but not because they eat them. These creatures actually feed on small fish and invertebrates. However, as their name might suggest, they have stinging barbs on their tails. These venomous, mucus covered barbs can grow to 15in (38cm) long, and with their whip-like tails, these Stingrays can pierce bone. These enormous creatures are currently very vulnerable, and all populations are listed as at least that by the IUCN . The Thailand sub-population is Critically Endangered. They faces issues with habitat destruction, fishi


( Image Source ) Look at that picture to the right. What do you think that guy is? If you're thinking a Dinosaur, you'd actually be wrong. That guy over there is a Dimetrodon, an animal belonging to the genus of the same name that actually predated the Dinosaurs by 40 million years . Want to know something else awesome? Dimetrodons are actually more closely related to mammals than they are to reptiles. They are synapsids, tetrapods with one hole in the skull located closely behind each eye. Mammals are also synapsids, while animals like birds and reptiles are saurapsids. Synapsids were dominant creatures during the Permain period (299-251 million years ago), and the Dimetrodons in particular were apex predators. The name actually refers to the fact that they have two types of teeth , canines as well as sheering teeth. ( Image Source ) Dimetrodons are perhaps best known for the massive sails on their backs. This sail is actually made from spines that grow directly

American Goldfinch

Male (right) and Female (left) Sorry for the completely last post today. I'm snowed in and everything is white, so today I felt like writing about an animal with some color: the American Goldfinch. As their name might suggest, there songbirds are native to North America, and can be found throughout at varying points of the year. Some populations remain in place year round, while others are migratory, moving between Canada and the Northern USA, down to the South and Mexico. They are found in brushy, mostly open habitats. Both male and female Goldfinches are yellow, though the males are far more vibrant, especially during the breeding season. They are the only finch species to molt twice a year, and breed relatively late for a songbird. American Goldfinches are notable for their very strict vegetarian diet. While many bird species feed on the occasional insect, Goldfinches eat exclusively seeds. This has an interesting affect on the Brown-Headed Cowbird . These birds sometim

Chan's Megastick

Phobaeticus chani  is a Phasmid, a type of insect that mimics its surroundings by looking a lot like a stick. This particular species, found in the treetop canopies of Borneo, is one of the longest. Only three specimens have ever been collected, but the longest, a female, has a body length of 14in (37.5cm). When you toss the legs in there, it reaches 22.5in (56.7cm). ( Image Source ) Chan's Megastick (named for it's discoverer, Datuk Chan Chew Lun) is also notable for its strange eggs, which have wing-like flaps on the cases to help them float and disperse. This entry is a short one, unfortunately, because so very little is actually known about this amazing insect. Its habitat is so high up that they are extremely difficult to locate, and with the loss of rainforest areas, who known how many other species like this will never actually be discovered?

Little Penguin

( Image Source ) As the name might suggest, Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) are the smallest penguin species in the world. They stand 17in tall, and weigh only 2lbs. This is quite a difference when compared to the Emperor Penguin, the world's largest. They stand 48in and can weigh up to 90lbs! Little Penguins are found in New Zealand and Australia, where they are also referred to as Fairy Penguins (for their tiny size) and Blue Penguins (for the color of their plumage.)  Little Penguins are a slate-blue color , with a bright white belly. The males and females look exactly the same, though the males are sometimes a tad bit larger. Juveniles also look a great deal like their parents. Little Penguins are nocturnal carnivores, and hunt fish, squid, and crustaceans, making dives of around 60feet that last less than a minute. ( Image Source ) Little penguins are monogamous over many seasons, and will typically only find a new mate if their previous one dies. They also form

Giant Isopod

Of the nine members of the genus Bathynomus , B. giganteus is the largest. These crustaceans, closely related to shrimp, look like something out of science fiction, but they are in fact real, living creatures that crawl around in the deep sea of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Giant Isopods live at depths of over 2,000 feet and can grow to nearly a foot and a half in length! ( Image Source ) Like the Giant Squid and the Giant Tube Worm , Giant Isopods are an example of deep sea gigantism , which causes animals on the sea floor to grow far larger than their near-surface counterparts. One thought on why this happens is that the large size helps compensate for the huge amount of water pressure that is placed on the creatures by their deep habitat. Giant Isopods have a rigid exoskeleton that also lets them roll up into a ball to avoid danger. Giant Isopods are opportunistic, carnivorous feeders, and they have to be! They live in an area where food is scarce, and so they will gorg

Japanese Macaque

( Image Source ) When you think of primates, you probably think of tropical environments, or at least warm weather climates. Such is not always the case for the Japanese Macaque, the northernmost non-human primate in the entire world. They inhabit three of the four large islands of Japan, (all but Hokkaido) and not only do they live far north latitude-wise, but they also live in elevations of up to 9,600 feet. Of course, it should be noted that in the lower elevation, southern areas of their range, the temperatures do get to be sub-tropical. But other population live in absolutely frigid conditions, making the climate range of the population as a whole very diverse. Even though their tails are very short, Japanese Macaques ( Macaca fuscata ) are classified as monkeys. In fact, one of their other common names is " Snow Monkey ." In the winter months, the cold-weather Macaques save energy by moving less and sunning themselves. Some tribes even locate hot springs in order

Pelican Eel

( Image Source ) Pelican Eel, Umbrella Mouth Eel, Gulper Eel, Eurypharynx pelecanoides , no matter what you call it, this is one strange looking animal. Pelican Eels are so named because of their absolutely gigantic mouths. They are found in rather deep waters , between 3,000 and 26,000 feet, of both tropical and subtropical waters around the world. Pelican Eels can grow up to a meter in length, with a large portion of that taken up by its massive head. Their mouths have hinged jaws that would allow them to eat fish much larger than themselves. Their stomachs stretch as well, though interestingly, they have very small teeth. This, combined with found stomach contents, demonstrates that Pelican Eels primarily eat small crustaceans. ( Image Source ) Another rather interesting part of their body is the long, whip-like tail. Pelican Eels have long tails that are tipped with bioluminescent photophores . It is believed that these serve a purpose to lure prey in the dark, deep w

Great Spotted Kiwi

Did you know that there are actually five species of Kiwi, the national symbol of New Zealand? And that the largest of these is the Great Spotted Kiwi? Well now you do! This specific, nocturnal, species is currently listed as vulnerable , and is found in only a few forested, mountainous areas on the South Island. (Image Source) Great Spotted Kiwis ( Apteryx haastii ) have some rather interesting anatomical features. First off, females are actually larger than males, growing up to 20 inches in length, as opposed to 18, and weigh up to 7lbs, as opposed to 5. Like all Ratites, Great Spotted Kiwis are flightless. They have wings, but they are extremely small and lack the powerful breast muscles that allow for flight. To compensate, they have strong legs that allow them to move about quickly, and also allow them to attack with the ability to cause fatal wounds . Males use their feet to fight over territory, and the birds are even able to fend off mustelid predators with them as well.

Arctic Fox

Winter Coat We received our first snowfall of the year just recently, which made me think of all the amazing animals who are adapted to life in absolutely frigid temperatures. The Arctic Fox ( Alpoex lagopus ) is just one of those creatures. Able to live at temperatures of -58 degrees Fahrenheit , they are animals well suited to the Arctic expanses. One of the most well known features of the Arctic Fox is its ability to change color depending on the season. In the summer, when the snowfall had abated and the ground is dark, they take on coat that ranges from grey to brown. In the winter, they are a startling white. This adaptation allows the Foxes to camouflage themselves at all times of the year. Arctic Foxes also have short legs, ears, and noses, which leave them less exposed to the elements. Their long, bushy tail is also used for warmth and coverage. Summer Coat Arctic Foxes are nomadic creatures. They move around from place to place in search of food, which consists of

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna is found in the areas of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. They are reach absolutely gigantic sizes, with specimens easily reaching six feet in lengths and weighing upwards of 550lbs. Even larger individuals are not uncommon. They largest ever caught weighed in at nearly 1,500 lbs ! They achieve those sizes because of their voracious appetites. They will eat smaller fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, and even plankton and kelp. ( Image Source ) Atlantic Bluefins have a striking color pattern, with a metallic blue on their top side, and a whiter shade underneath. This serves to camouflage them from both directions. They swim in large schools, oftentimes intermingling with other fish species that are of a similar size. Their bodies are built for both speed and endurance , and they can reach speeds of 60mph while chasing prey. One of the most interesting tidbits about this fish is that it is actually warmblooded, a trait that is rather rare among fis


The Scheltopusik, also known as the European Glass Lizard, looks like a snake, but is not. Though it has no legs and moves like a snake, its ear openings, eyelids, and ventral scales identify it as a lizard. It is one of many species of legless or reduced-legged lizards that are found all over the world. ( Image Source ) The Scheltopusik ( Pseudopus apodus ) looks a lot like a large, cream-colored worm (it's common name comes from a Russian word meaning yellow-bellied). It can grow to some pretty big lengths, with specimens measured at 100-130cm. A large portion of their body is made up of a tail, which can detach as a defense mechanism. They sometimes do  have their hind legs, but they are very small and are essentially worthless. They make their home in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, in primarily open, dry areas. There, the Scheltpousik hunts a variety of different animals, including rodents, snails, and insects. Females lay up to a dozen eggs at a time, which she gu


Siamangs are the largest of the Gibbons, apes of the family Hylobatidae that live in tropical environments of the Eastern Hemisphere. Siamangs can measure a meter from head to rump, and weigh up to 30lbs. They can be found in the rainforests of Malaysia and Indonesia. ( Image Source ) Siamangs are black in color, and have a sac on their throats that allows them to greatly amplify sound. They are able to produce the loudest sounds of any Gibbon. There is slight sexual dimorphism , with males being larger than the females. Like all apes, Siamangs do not have tails, and their bodies are more upright oriented. When on the ground, Siamangs are more or less bipedal. When in the trees however (which is about 80% of the time) they move by brachiation, which is hand over hand swinging. During this movement, they are able to carry things with their feet. Their arm span can be as large as 1.5m. One of the most interesting facts about the Siamang is that it is a species that forms monog

Antarctic Krill

Antarctic Krill ( Euphausia superba ) are the largest of all the krill , small, semi-transparent crustaceans that can be found the world over. They grow up to two inches long, and have a slight hint on red on their backs. It is estimated that there are over  500 million tonnes  of Krill in the ocean, and that that biomass is the most for any multi-celled creature on the entire planet. They swim in dense swarms that can contain 10,000-30,000 individuals per square meter. ( Image Source ) Antarctic Krill feed on phytoplankton, which is abundant due to updrafts of nutrients from the cold waters. Phytoplankton feed from nutrients and the sun, and Krill feed on them, meaning they lose very little energy as they are so close to the source on the chain. This make Krill a desirable meal for larger animals because they too will lose very little energy. Baleen Whales feed almost exclusively on Krill, scooping up these swarms in a mouthful. Good thing female Krill lay up to 10,000 eggs a

European Starling

( Image Source ) Outside of my building there is a flock of birds. There are hundreds, if not thousands of them. They hide in a huge tree, making horrible, scary noises that can be heard from blocks away. And they make it impossible to park on that side of the street for all of the warm weather months. Meet the European Starling ( Sturnus vulgaris ), one of the most "successful"  invasive species in North America. There are over 200 million of these birds, and they are one of the most numerous species on the entire continent... and they are all descended from a hundred or so birds brought here in 1890 by a man named Eugene Schieffelin. You see, Schieffelin felt that North America should have all of the birds that are found in the works of Shakespeare . Thanks Henry IV, Part I , and bravo Mr. Schieffelin. Within 75 years they covering the continent, though their genetic diversity is quite low. Starlings compete for nests with native species, (though luckily most have